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Renaissance architecture

Introduction

❶In the Quattrocento , concepts of architectural order were explored and rules were formulated.

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The development of printed books, the rediscovery of ancient writings, the expanding of political and trade contacts and the exploration of the world all increased knowledge and the desire for education.

The reading of philosophies that were not based on Christian theology led to the development of Humanism through which it was clear that while God had established and maintained order in the Universe, it was the role of Man to establish and maintain order in Society. Through Humanism , civic pride and the promotion of civil peace and order were seen as the marks of citizenship.

This led to the building of structures such as Brunelleschi's Hospital of the Innocents with its elegant colonnade forming a link between the charitable building and the public square, and the Laurentian Library where the collection of books established by the Medici family could be consulted by scholars. Some major ecclesiastical building works were also commissioned, not by the church, but by guilds representing the wealth and power of the city.

As in the Platonic academy of Athens , it was seen by those of Humanist understanding that those people who had the benefit of wealth and education ought to promote the pursuit of learning and the creation of that which was beautiful. To this end, wealthy families—the Medici of Florence, the Gonzaga of Mantua, the Farnese in Rome, the Sforzas in Milan—gathered around them people of learning and ability, promoting the skills and creating employment for the most talented artists and architects of their day.

During the Renaissance, architecture became not only a question of practice, but also a matter for theoretical discussion. Printing played a large role in the dissemination of ideas.

Historians often divide the Renaissance in Italy into three phases. The bleak economic conditions of the late 14th century did not produce buildings that are considered to be part of the Renaissance. As a result, the word "Renaissance" among architectural historians usually applies to the period to ca. In the Quattrocento , concepts of architectural order were explored and rules were formulated. See- Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture, below. The study of classical antiquity led in particular to the adoption of Classical detail and ornamentation.

Space, as an element of architecture, was utilised differently from the way it had been in the Middle Ages. Space was organised by proportional logic, its form and rhythm subject to geometry, rather than being created by intuition as in Medieval buildings.

During the High Renaissance , concepts derived from classical antiquity were developed and used with greater confidence. The most representative architect is Bramante — who expanded the applicability of classical architecture to contemporary buildings.

His San Pietro in Montorio was directly inspired by circular Roman temples. He was, however, hardly a slave to the classical forms and it was his style that was to dominate Italian architecture in the 16th century. During the Mannerist period, architects experimented with using architectural forms to emphasize solid and spatial relationships. The Renaissance ideal of harmony gave way to freer and more imaginative rhythms. Prior to the 20th century, the term Mannerism had negative connotations, but it is now used to describe the historical period in more general non-judgemental terms.

As the new style of architecture spread out from Italy, most other European countries developed a sort of Proto-Renaissance style, before the construction of fully formulated Renaissance buildings. Each country in turn then grafted its own architectural traditions to the new style, so that Renaissance buildings across Europe are diversified by region. Within Italy the evolution of Renaissance architecture into Mannerism, with widely diverging tendencies in the work of Michelangelo and Giulio Romano and Andrea Palladio, led to the Baroque style in which the same architectural vocabulary was used for very different rhetoric.

Outside Italy, Baroque architecture was more widespread and fully developed than the Renaissance style, with significant buildings as far afield as Mexico [15] and the Philippines.

The obvious distinguishing features of Classical Roman architecture were adopted by Renaissance architects. However, the forms and purposes of buildings had changed over time, as had the structure of cities. Among the earliest buildings of the reborn Classicism were churches of a type that the Romans had never constructed.

Neither were there models for the type of large city dwellings required by wealthy merchants of the 15th century. Conversely, there was no call for enormous sporting fixtures and public bath houses such as the Romans had built. The ancient orders were analysed and reconstructed to serve new purposes. The plans of Renaissance buildings have a square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module.

Within a church, the module is often the width of an aisle. The first building to demonstrate this was St. Andrea in Mantua by Alberti. The development of the plan in secular architecture was to take place in the 16th century and culminated with the work of Palladio. The columns and windows show a progression towards the centre. Domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice. There is a regular repetition of openings on each floor, and the centrally placed door is marked by a feature such as a balcony, or rusticated surround.

The Greek and Roman orders of columns are used: The orders can either be structural, supporting an arcade or architrave, or purely decorative, set against a wall in the form of pilasters. During the Renaissance, architects aimed to use columns, pilasters, and entablatures as an integrated system.

One of the first buildings to use pilasters as an integrated system was in the Old Sacristy — by Brunelleschi. Arches are semi-circular or in the Mannerist style segmental.

Arches are often used in arcades, supported on piers or columns with capitals. There may be a section of entablature between the capital and the springing of the arch. Alberti was one of the first to use the arch on a monumental scale at the St. Vaults do not have ribs.

They are semi-circular or segmental and on a square plan, unlike the Gothic vault which is frequently rectangular. The barrel vault is returned to architectural vocabulary as at the St. The dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior, and also as a means of roofing smaller spaces where they are only visible internally.

Peter's Basilica in Rome, the dome became an indispensable element in church architecture and later even for secular architecture, such as Palladio's Villa Rotonda.

Roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings. They are not left open as in Medieval architecture. They are frequently painted or decorated.

Doors usually have square lintels. They may be set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment. Openings that do not have doors are usually arched and frequently have a large or decorative keystone. Windows may be paired and set within a semi-circular arch.

They may have square lintels and triangular or segmental pediments, which are often used alternately. Emblematic in this respect is the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, begun in Windows are used to bring light into the building and in domestic architecture, to give views. Stained glass, although sometimes present, is not a feature.

External walls are generally constructed of brick, rendered, or faced with stone in highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses.

The corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins. Basements and ground floors were often rusticated, as at the Palazzo Medici Riccardi — in Florence. Internal walls are smoothly plastered and surfaced with lime wash.

For more formal spaces, internal surfaces are decorated with frescoes. Courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory.

The different orders each required different sets of details. Some architects were stricter in their use of classical details than others, but there was also a good deal of innovation in solving problems, especially at corners.

Mouldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture. Sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths. They are not integral to the building as in Medieval architecture. The person generally credited with bringing about the Renaissance view of architecture is Filippo Brunelleschi , — In the early 15th century, Brunelleschi began to look at the world to see what the rules were that governed one's way of seeing.

He observed that the way one sees regular structures such as the Baptistery of Florence and the tiled pavement surrounding it follows a mathematical order— linear perspective. The buildings remaining among the ruins of ancient Rome appeared to respect a simple mathematical order in the way that Gothic buildings did not.

One incontrovertible rule governed all Ancient Roman architecture —a semi-circular arch is exactly twice as wide as it is high. A fixed proportion with implications of such magnitude occurred nowhere in Gothic architecture. A Gothic pointed arch could be extended upwards or flattened to any proportion that suited the location. Arches of differing angles frequently occurred within the same structure. No set rules of proportion applied. From the observation of the architecture of Rome came a desire for symmetry and careful proportion in which the form and composition of the building as a whole and all its subsidiary details have fixed relationships, each section in proportion to the next, and the architectural features serving to define exactly what those rules of proportion are.

Brunelleschi's first major architectural commission was for the enormous brick dome which covers the central space of Florence's cathedral , designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in the 14th century but left unroofed. While often described as the first building of the Renaissance, Brunelleschi's daring design utilizes the pointed Gothic arch and Gothic ribs that were apparently planned by Arnolfio.

It seems certain, however, that while stylistically Gothic, in keeping with the building it surmounts, the dome is in fact structurally influenced by the great dome of Ancient Rome, which Brunelleschi could hardly have ignored in seeking a solution. This is the dome of the Pantheon , a circular temple, now a church. Inside the Pantheon's single-shell concrete dome is coffering which greatly decreases the weight. The vertical partitions of the coffering effectively serve as ribs, although this feature does not dominate visually.

At the apex of the Pantheon's dome is an opening, 8 meters across. Brunelleschi was aware that a dome of enormous proportion could in fact be engineered without a keystone. The dome in Florence is supported by the eight large ribs and sixteen more internal ones holding a brick shell, with the bricks arranged in a herringbone manner.

Although the techniques employed are different, in practice both domes comprise a thick network of ribs supporting very much lighter and thinner infilling. And both have a large opening at the top. The new architectural philosophy of the Renaissance is best demonstrated in the churches of San Lorenzo , and Santo Spirito in Florence.

Designed by Brunelleschi in about and respectively, both have the shape of the Latin cross. Each has a modular plan, each portion being a multiple of the square bay of the aisle.

This same formula controlled also the vertical dimensions. In the case of Santo Spirito, which is entirely regular in plan, transepts and chancel are identical, while the nave is an extended version of these.

It is composed of a central octagon surrounded by a circuit of eight smaller chapels. From this date onwards numerous churches were built in variations of these designs.

Michelozzo Michelozzi — , was another architect under patronage of the Medici family, his most famous work being the Palazzo Medici Riccardi , which he was commissioned to design for Cosimo de' Medici in A decade later he built the Villa Medici at Fiesole. He went into exile in Venice for a time with his patron. He was one of the first architects to work in the Renaissance style outside Italy, building a palace at Dubrovnik. The Palazzo Medici Riccardi is Classical in the details of its pedimented windows and recessed doors, but, unlike the works of Brunelleschi and Alberti, there are no orders of columns in evidence.

Instead, Michelozzo has respected the Florentine liking for rusticated stone. He has seemingly created three orders out of the three defined rusticated levels, the whole being surmounted by an enormous Roman-style cornice which juts out over the street by 2.

Leon Battista Alberti , born in Genoa — , was an important Humanist theoretician and designer whose book on architecture De re Aedificatoria was to have lasting effect. An aspect of Humanism was an emphasis of the anatomy of nature, in particular the human form, a science first studied by the Ancient Greeks. Humanism made man the measure of things.

Alberti perceived the architect as a person with great social responsibilities. Inorganic Organic Analytical Physical. Applied physics Artificial intelligence Bioethics Bioinformatics Biomedical engineering Biostatistics Cognitive science Complex systems Computational linguistics Cultural studies Cybernetics Environmental science Environmental social science Environmental studies Ethnic studies Evolutionary psychology. Forensics Forestry Library science.

Glossaries of science and engineering. James and John Knapton, et al. English Heritage Online Thesaurus. Retrieved 5 December All Experts, owned by About.

Archived from the original on 12 October In the film At First Sight the word "heifunon" was mentioned as a supposed architectural term… Is there really such a word? Jacobean architecture was revived in the United States the early 20th century. An upper story of a building that projects out over the story beneath it, common in Colonial American architecture. A saw with a small, thin blade used for cutting curves and curlicues in wooden boards. A four-sided hipped roof featuring two slopes on each side, the lower slopes being very steep, almost vertical, and the upper slopes sometimes being so horizontal that they are not visible from the ground.

The Mansard roof was named after the French 17th-century architect Francois Mansart , who popularized the form. A classical style of architecture.

The three primary orders, used in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, are, chronologically: Rafters that extend beyond the eaves of a roof. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, to which the roof covering is affixed. A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a central axis pole. Indigenous to Asia particularly to China, Japan, and Korea , and typically located there within Buddhist temple precincts, pagodas were built as decorative garden structures in the United States and Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, when exoticism in architectural ornament was highly fashionable.

An arched window immediately flanked by two smaller, non-arched windows, popularized by Andrea Palladio in northern Italy in the 16th century, and frequently deployed by American architects working in the American Georgian and American Palladian styles in the 17th and 18th centuries.

A smooth surface, usually rectangular or sometimes circular in shape and framed by a molding, and often featuring decorative, sculptural carving. A low wall, located at the top of any sudden drop, such as at the top of the facade of a building.

One of the most iconic buildings of the classical world, erected in Athens around B. The Parthenon temple was built in honor of the Greek goddess Athena; it was ringed with 46 columns, and crowned by two pediments containing a wealth of sculptural detail. Its stonework was originally brightly colored, but its paint has long since worn away.

A large gilt statue of Athena once stood inside the temple. Similar to a terrace, a patio is an outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky. Colloquially, a patio is a more informal space than a terrace. A small but prominent portion of a building that juts out from a main building, either above its roof line, or to the side, and which is identified by a unique usually diminutive height and individual roof type.

A pavilion may also stand alone, separate from a larger building, or may be connected to a main building by a terrace or path. A decorative triangular piece situated over a portico, door, window, fireplace, etc. A garden structure built up over a path or narrow terrace, lined with evenly spaced columns or posts that support a wooden-framed roof without sheathing.

Often, vines are trained around the wooden framework of a pergola, and the pergola may lead from one building to another. Picturesque architecture and landscape architecture evolved in England in the 18th and 19th centuries, and influenced American architecture and landscapes in the 19th century; winding paths, asymmetrical compositions, rustic or exotic elements see pagoda , and faux ruins were characteristic of picturesque architecture and landscapes.

Picturesque settings were favored for their emotional associations. A shallow, non-structural rectangular column, attached to, and projecting only slightly from, a wall surface. A structural support, similar to a column, but larger and more massive, and often without ornamentation.

Pillars can be round or square in section, and are most often made of brick, stone, cement, or other masonry, although substantial wooden timbers can be formed into pillars. An arch that is pointed at its apex, rather than rounded; common in Gothic and Gothic Revival architecture.

An entrance porch with columns or pilasters and a roof, and often crowned by a triangular pediment. A mode of wall construction in French Colonial America in which tall posts are rammed into the ground, and the spaces between them are filled with mud plaster, also known as bousillage. Due to the impermanent nature of this construction, very few Poteau- en-terre buildings remain.

A traditional community of Native Americans living in the southwestern United States. Pueblos consist of many adjacent houses made of adobe brick, although these houses are often, themselves, called pueblos. Rooflines can be highly decorative, with balustrades, pediments, statuary, dormer windows, cross gables, etc.

A gable roof whose rear slope is longer than its front slope. The rear slope often very nearly meets the ground. Saltbox roofs are common to the architecture of Colonial New England.

Pairs of solid or slatted window coverings, traditionally hinged to the exterior of a building to either side of a window, used to block light or wind from the interior of a building. A finely-grained, foliated rock, native to Pennsylvania, Vermont, and New York, and found in many colors. Slate has been used to roof buildings in the United States since the colonial era.

Stained glass windows are fitted with pieces of colored glass, which often depict a picture or scene. A plaster used as a coating for walls and ceilings, and often used for decoration; it is common to many parts of the world, particularly to the Mediterranean region and to the regions of the United States once colonized by Spain i. An outdoor extension of a building, situated above the ground level, and open to the sky.

A roof covered with tiles that are usually hollow and half-cylindrical in shape, and made out of clay. Tile roofs are common in many parts of the world, including the Mediterranean and the Southwestern United States. A spirit, character, custom, etc. A traditional ethos encompasses folk lore, music, art, dress, and building methods, among other things.

A small tower that pierces a roofline.

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Renaissance revival, or “rebirth” of classical learning (art, architecture, literature, etc.) that marked the transition from medieval to modern times. revetment in Roman and Italian Renaissance architecture, fine stone that covers a .

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Architecture constructed in England during the reigns of James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II (); Jacobean architecture followed Elizabethan architecture, and preceded the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones.

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Learn vocabulary renaissance architecture with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of vocabulary renaissance architecture flashcards on Quizlet. Renaissance Architecture: Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture .

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Renaissance architecture: Renaissance architecture, style of architecture, reflecting the rebirth of Classical culture, that originated in Florence in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe, replacing the medieval Gothic style. There was a revival of ancient Roman forms, including the column and round arch, the. Consequently, much non-Italian Renaissance architecture embodies a fascinating blend of Gothic intricacy and verticality (including towers) with Renaissance simplicity and restraint. The leading region of Renaissance architecture in northern Europe was France, where the primary building type was the chateau (country mansion).